By Editorial Team Last updated: Oct 14, 2022
In one important sense, science, as a (supposedly) consistent body of knowledge about the natural or physical world, is about coherent laws that describe the natural order of things. These physical principles define reality for us; they define what is known using reason and the five senses of sight, smell, taste, hearing, and touch.
In contrast, mystical experience is about a direct experience with reality that is beyond the intellect and sensory perception. Seeking a "deeper" insight into the nature of reality, mystical experience may contradict the natural order of things. And if something contradicts the natural order of things, then it presents conflicts with a great deal of what we know about reality. But if something does not cohere with what is known, then it is not a good source of (factual) knowledge.
- Using the following deductive argument, substitute some mystical experience (that you, a family member, or friend has lived) for the variable x and analyze and evaluate the resulting argument (i.e., use Critical Thinking).
- (1) If x conflicts with a great deal of what we know about (an area or field of) science, then x is not a good source of (factual) knowledge.
(2) x conflicts with a great deal of what we know about (an area or field of) science.
(3) Thus, x is not a good source of (factual) knowledge.
Complete this in a Microsoft Word document. Your detailed response must include the following core ideas of Critical Thinking:
- ANALYSIS: Examine the structure of the argument in detail and symbolize this structure or component parts.
- EVALUATION: Is the deductive argument valid? Is it sound (= valid + true premises)? If sound, tell why the premises are true.
Respond to the following items:
- What is the relationship between science and philosophy?
- Explain how one hypothesis explains the evidence and accounts for it better than another.
- What is the difference between direct knowledge and indirect knowledge?
- Describe why factual knowledge (also known as propositional knowledge, descriptive knowledge, or declarative knowledge) is important.
- What besides true belief do you need in order to have knowledge?
- When are you justified in believing a proposition to be true?
- When do you have good reason for doubting that a proposition is True?
- What are the sources of knowledge?
- Is faith a source of knowledge?
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