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Related: Criminal Justice Research Topics That Will Astound Your Tutor in 2021
A. Criminal Justice vs. Criminology
Criminology. The criminal justice system. Even within the discipline, the phrases are frequently misunderstood. Criminal justice and criminology, on the other hand, are two distinct fields. As a result, these terms cannot be used interchangeably. Criminology and criminal justice do have a connection. Assume you're interested in pursuing a profession in one of the fields. Then you must be able to answer the question, "What is the difference between criminal justice and criminology?"
Simply described, criminology is the study of the anatomy of a crime. It investigates the causes, costs, and repercussions of it in more detail. Criminal justice differs from criminology in the scope of its application. It refers to the methods for detecting, detaining, prosecuting, and punishing criminals that have been established. In a nutshell, consider criminal justice to be a branch of law enforcement.
The distinctions between criminal justice and criminology were very briefly discussed in this chapter. It's time to move on to criminology research questions!
B. Research Ideas & Topics in Criminology
Ideas for Captivating Criminal Justice and Criminology Research Topics are included below, categorized by theme.
Topics for General Criminology Research Papers
- As a social science, criminology is a study of criminal behavior.
- Criminology and its implications for public policy.
- The study of criminology has a long and illustrious history.
- Legal and sociological viewpoints on the commission on crime.
- In criminology, the terms "crime" and "victimization" are used interchangeably.
- What kind of crimes are common among people of different ages?
- What is the relationship between the type of crime and the level of aggression?
- What's the link between citizenship (or lack thereof) and breaking the law?
- What relationship exists between education (or a lack thereof) and the level of crime?
- Is there a link between employment (or a lack thereof) and breaking the law?
- What's the link between family status and breaking the law?
- Is there a link between gender and the sort of law violation?
- What is the relationship between gun ownership and breaking the law?
- Is there a link between immigration status and breaking the law?
- In criminology, the terms "crime" and "victimization" are used interchangeably.
- Is there a link between mental illness and breaking the law?
- What are the societal causes of violence?
- Is the crime rate affected by where you live?
- What is the relationship between race and the sort of crime?
- Is there a link between religious convictions and breaking the law?
- What is the relationship between socioeconomic class and crime rate?
- What are the causes of the homeless people's predicament?
- What does the weather have to do with breaking the law?
Theories of Criminology: Topics
- Biological theories of crime: how do biological elements relate to the breaking of the law?
- Classical criminology: a modern perspective on crime, economics, deterrence, and rational decision-making.
- What do ex-convicts have to say about criminology for convicts?
- Punishment is a deterrence to crime, according to criminal justice theory.
- Debunking incorrect assumptions about crime and criminal justice is the goal of critical criminology.
- Criminality as a product of culture, according to cultural criminology.
- Theory of cultural transmission: how criminal norms are passed along through social interaction.
- The deterrence hypothesis explains how people are less likely to commit crimes if they are afraid of being punished.
- The rational choice theory describes how criminal behavior is connected with the perpetrator's own goals.
- The mainstream crime theories exclude women, according to feminist criminology.
- Minorities and people who deviate from social norms are negatively labeled, according to labeling and symbolic interaction theories.
- Life course criminology is the study of how life events influence human behavior.
- Criminal behavior via the lens of an individual's personality, according to psychological theories of crime.
- The notion of routine activities examines how ordinary daily activities influence the likelihood of committing a crime.
- Natural legal crime is a notion.
- The self-control theory explains how a lack of personal self-control leads to illegal action.
- Crime is a social construct: it is committed as a social response.
- Theory of social control: how positive socialization leads to fewer criminal offenses.
- Theory of social disorganization: how ecological factors of a neighborhood correlate with crime rates.
- Theory of social learning: how (non)criminal behavior can be learned through observation and imitation of others.
- Strain theories describe how society's social arrangements compel citizens to commit crimes.
- Two theories are better than one when it comes to theoretical integration.
Topics in Criminology Research and Measurement
- CCA (citation content analysis) is a framework for extracting information from a number of sources.
- Crime classification systems are used to categorize crimes based on the severity of the penalty.
- Crime mapping is a technique for mapping, visualizing, and analyzing crime patterns.
- Crime reports and statistics: the estimated crime rate over time. Surveys of the general public.
- The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) predicts drug misuse trends.
- Drug use among arrestees is monitored by Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM).
- Edge ethnography is the practice of gathering data undercover in generally restricted study settings and groups through the establishment of rapport or the use of a covert undercover method.
- Experimental and quasi-experimental research in the progress of criminological theory is referred to as experimental criminology.
- Fieldwork in criminology: street ethnographers and their process and outcome difficulties in the field.
- Program assessment is gathering and analyzing data in order to determine the effectiveness of projects, policies, and programs.
- Exploratory research questions, inductive reasoning, and a social context orientation aid in the recognition of human subjectivity in quantitative criminology.
Topics in Criminology on Different Types of Crime
- The most common crimes on college campuses, as well as strategies to prevent them.
- Types of child abuse, prevalence, risk categories, and methods of detection and prevention
- Cybercrime includes such things as cyber fraud, defamation, hacking, bullying, and phishing.
- Gender, detection and prevention methods, and activism all play a role in domestic abuse.
- Domestic violence in the presence of impairments.
- Types of elder abuse, prevalence, risk categories, and methods of detection and prevention
- Environmental crime is a serious problem. Illicit wildlife and timber trafficking, poaching, and illegal fishing are all examples of natural resource theft.
- Environmental crime is a serious problem. Ozone-depleting compounds, hazardous waste, and pollution of the air, water, and soil are all illegally traded.
- Local, regional, national, and global environmental criminality
- Climate change crime and corruption are examples of environmental crime.
- Wildlife exploitation and harm are examples of environmental crime.
- Prejudice inspires violence in hate crimes.
- Different types of criminal activity.
- Homicide is the act of one person killing another.
- Human trafficking: deceptive strategies, risk categories, detection and prevention approaches
- Methods, risk groups, and strategies to identify and prevent identity theft
- Gambling is legal in the United States.
- Risk groups, preventative policies, prosecution, and punishment for juvenile delinquency.
- Causes and Consequences of Juvenile Delinquency
- Transnational, national, and local levels of organized crime Disrupting a group's activity in various ways.
- Risk groups, diverse approaches to preventative measures, and advocacy all play a role in prostitution.
- Robbery: risk categories, preventative strategies, prosecution, and penalties
- Risk groups, types, prevalence, and methods of detection and prevention for sex offenses.
- Definition, history, and countermeasures of terrorism.
- Individual and collective terrorism, as well as methods of detection and prevention.
- Theft and shoplifting are discussed in terms of risk categories, detection methods, preventative programs, prosecution, and punishment.
- Constitutional and legislative issues in counter-terrorism.
- Types of white-collar crime, detection methods, preventative strategies, prosecution, and punishment
Topics in Criminology on Racism and Discrimination
- What impact does systemic bias have on criminal justice?
- How does the media's representation of minority groups affect criminal justice?
- Racial profiling is the practice of targeting minorities based on their color and ethnicity.
- Discrimination and racism towards African-Americans.
- What are the disadvantages of racial profiling? Are there any advantages?
- How biased is the legal system in the United Kingdom?
- How discriminatory is the legal system in the United States?
Other Research Topics in Criminology
- Corporate criminals are the criminals of the ruling class.
- Illegal genetic research and its dangers
- The ramifications of hate crime in the criminal justice system.
- Serial killers: risk groups, detection methods, and prevention strategies
- The media's portrayal of serial killers.
- What impact does organized crime have on the criminal justice system?
- Programs to prevent crime.
- Is it true that street lighting reduces crime?
- Terrorism-prevention technology is a term used to describe a type of technology that
- Identity theft: risk groups, deception methods, and preventative strategies
- Procedural and substantive aspects of the due process paradigm
- In the criminal justice system, crime control is important.
- What are the many types of drugs and how do they effect their users?
- The purpose of smart portable gadgets for security staff.
- The impact of social media on crime rates.
- What impact does criminal justice have on public health?
- What function do psychometric tests have in criminal justice?
- The United States' national defense.
- The United Kingdom's national defense.
- The role of activism, methods of response, prevention, and prosecution in sexual harassment.
- Military personnel who abuse substances.
- A complete list of criminology and criminal justice jobs.
C. Criminal Justice Research Questions & Topics
Here are a few of the most common and fascinating criminal justice topics to impress your lecturer with.
- The primary issues and difficulties of the prison system.
- The gender issue: why do men receive the death penalty at a higher rate than women?
- Kidnapping and ransom: shared characteristics, motifs, and patterns of conduct.
- The fundamentals of crime prevention.
- What aids specialists in determining whether a gunshot was deliberate or accidental?
- Cybercrime from a legal standpoint.
- Internet vigilantism: vengeance spills out.
- On the internet, hate crimes include revenge leaks, trolling, and slander.
- In the media, there is a lot of talk about crime and justice.
- Laws governing parental kidnapping.
- Pros and drawbacks of a sex offender registry
- Is the deterrence theory and the rational choice theory still relevant in today's world?
- Sexual assault in the workplace and in schools.
- How is jury selection carried out?
- The most recent developments in experimental criminology.
- Wildlife crime is prevalent in certain locations, and there are ways to prevent it.
- When do felony disenfranchisement laws apply?
- Organized crime and corruption have a relationship.
- What services are available to victims of crime?
- The psychological aspects of prison rape and violence, as well as prevention strategies.
- What are the risk groups for juvenile recidivism?
- In today's criminal justice system, forensic science plays an important role.
- How can you avoid shoplifting?
- Who is eligible for the Witness Protection Program and how may they be protected?
- What are the options for victims of date rape to seek legal help?
- Is there a link between substance abuse and crime?
- The hazards and implications of identity theft in today's environment.
- What legislation can be enacted to safeguard children from online predators? Examples from real life.
- How can you tell the difference between civil and criminal cases?
- What laws protect victims of domestic violence?
- What can be done to avoid elder abuse?
- The unattainable American dream, according to the strain theory.
- Law enforcement concepts: pursuing criminal justice
- The unethical aspects of law enforcement are discussed in terms of ethics and criminal justice.
- The most pressing issues facing law enforcement today.
- How has information-sharing technology aided the fight against terrorism?
- Terrorism in context: traits, causes, and management.
- Serial killers come in a variety of shapes and sizes.
- Drug use and arrests among teenagers.
- What is the relationship between aggressive behavior and criminal tendencies?
- Are community corrections effective?
- What is the process of sentencing?
- The several sorts of punishment and the terminologies that have been formed.
- When is it acceptable to make an unjustified arrest?
- Human trafficking is a problem in today's globe.
- Human trafficking: where it is now and what can be done about it.
- In modern forensics, the involvement of technology is critical.
- Homicide, murder, and manslaughter have certain similarities and variances.
- Offenders are classified into many types.
- In the United States, the effects of gun control policies.
- In today's criminal justice system, crime mapping plays an important role.
- Is there a difference between male and female crimes?
- Prisons have issues with poor living conditions.
- Victimization: what causes it and how to avoid it.
- Alternatives to the traditional justice system include victimology.
- What are the rights of rape victims?
- What underlying issues do problem-solving courts address?
- The three-strike rule and mandatory sentencing
- Are “three-strikes” rules successful, and should they be kept in place?
- What can be gained from the history of criminal courts?
- What causes people to conduct hate crimes?
- What are the dangers of youth gangs?
- What is the procedure for conducting fieldwork in criminology?
- The role of distributive justice in criminal justice.
- What can history teach us about capital punishment?
- In the 18th century, the humanities and justice were important in Britain.
- The death penalty should be abolished.
- Rights of criminals and detainees
- Programs aimed at preventing crime and rehabilitating criminals
- What rules and safeguards are in place to combat campus crime?
- How does the criminal justice system work?
- How are crimes committed in the name of religion punished?
- The Texas Department of Criminal Justice's code of ethics.
- The legislative frameworks of Florida and Maryland are compared.
- How can copyright protect researchers' findings in the scientific field?
- How are criminal laws implemented in practice?
- The categorization of criminal justice systems.
- What can parents do to safeguard their children from cyberbullying and cyberstalking?
- Cases of forgery at educational institutions, offices, and government agencies.
- How do drug courts operate?
Do you want to do something different with your work?
Consider debating one of the contentious issues. You'll need to present a variety of opposing viewpoints. Of course, you are free to choose and promote the viewpoint that you believe is the most valid. Just make sure to analyze all of the points of view thoroughly. You can alternatively remain objective and allow the reader to form their own opinion on the matter. If you choose to endorse one of the points of view, you should do it objectively. Also, back it up with a lot of evidence.
Here are a few examples of contentious subjects to consider.
- Which is more beneficial: reform or punishment?
- Is the restorative justice model the best tool for criminal justice?
- Is the war on drugs really working to solve the drug problem?
- Is criminal insanity a sufficient cause for immunity from liability?
- Should the juvenile justice system be abolished?
- On the school grounds, drug testing is conducted.
- In the United States, there is a lot of police brutality.
- What can be done to improve gun control?
- Why Should Gun Control Laws Be Obsolete?
- Is pornography a kind of sexual violence?
- Is it possible to apply the death penalty in a fair manner?
- Who was Jack the Ripper?
- Is the present criminal justice system racist?
- How can one defend themselves against a false accusation?
- What are the criminal codes for concealed guns in different states?
- Is there a link between race and crime?
- Should information about sex offenders be kept in public records?
- Is there a link between juvenile delinquency and poor parenting?
- Psychopathy and conduct disorder are assessed in juveniles.
- Should all new employees have their criminal records checked?
- Is there a higher rate of delinquency among immigrant children?
- Can restrictive housing aid in the decongestion of prisons?
- Is there a program in place to combat homegrown crime?
- The legalization of prostitution has sparked debate.
- Is eyewitness testimony really that valuable in a case?
- Is it effective to send young criminals to boot camps?
- Is predictive policing a good idea?
- Is selective incapacitation an effective crime-prevention strategy?
- Social class and crime: is there a relation?
- Death penalty: is it effective in criminal deterrence?
- Extradition law: is it fair?
- Devious interrogations: is dishonesty permissible during investigations?
- Supermax prisons: are they functional or just cruel?
- Zero tolerance: is it the best approach for crime reduction?
- Marijuana decriminalization: advantages and cons.
- Marijuana legalization in the US.
Now you've looked over the whole list of themes, choose wisely. Remember that sometimes it’s preferable to avoid touchy issues. Other times, a creative pick of a topic will gain you extra points. It doesn’t depend on only the preferences of your instructor, of course. You must also consider how much pertinent information there is on the topic. Anyway, the decision of the subject of your study is up to you. Try and find the current materials and undertake an in-depth examination of them. Don’t forget to draw a suitable conclusion. Writing may require a loads of time and effort, so plan beforehand. Remember to remain fresh and good luck!
D. What is the definition of criminology?
Now that we've gone through the criminology and criminal justice topic collections, it's time to get into the intricacies of each field. Let's start with a more in-depth discussion of criminology. If you're studying to be a criminologist, you'll spend extra time studying certain topics. They contain criminal behavior patterns, backgrounds, and the most recent sociological trends in crime.
There are various specialties in the discipline of criminology. As a result, identifying a single career that reflects a typical member of the field is challenging. It all depends on a criminologist's background, education, and experience.
- A criminologist's job may entail a variety of responsibilities. They might be called in to investigate a crime scene, for example. Autopsies are unpleasant, but they are required. Another important role is suspect interrogation and subsequent criminal profiling.
- Some people work entirely in the field of research. Others seek advice from government organizations or commercial security firms. Courts and law companies work with criminologists as well. It is their role to deliver expert testimony in criminal cases. Some of them work in prisons to supervise the rehabilitation of those who have been convicted.
- Regardless of their field of study, most criminologists are involved in data collection and profiling. An analyst is sometimes known as a criminologist. They gather, research, and analyze crime statistics. They provide recommendations and actionable information after doing the analysis.
- A criminologist is interested in determining the identify of the criminal. A crime's time frame, as well as the motivation behind it, are both crucial. A criminologist's analysis covers a wide range of topics. The criminal's or criminals' psychological conduct is extensively examined. The indicators of socioeconomic status are taken into account. Of course, there are environmental elements that may have aided in the crime.
- Some high-profile cases necessitate a criminologist's considerable communication with media and public relations management. Criminologists occasionally publish articles and even books based on their results. However, it should be mentioned that a professional in the field's everyday routine is far from glamorous. The majority of criminologists labor alone, away from the public eye.
A criminologist's research is comprehensive during the course of their career. Of course, it doesn't just sit in a folder on their desk. The data is utilized to create active criminal profiles, which are then shared with law enforcement organizations. It aids in the better understanding and prediction of criminal conduct. For a criminologist's work to be practical and useful, it must be exact and accurate. Professionals in criminology must also have a strong understanding of arithmetic and statistics.
Are you considering a career in criminology? At the very least, you must have a college diploma. You'll learn arithmetic, statistics, and, of course, criminology there. You might be able to secure an entry-level job with an associate's degree. However, a bachelor's degree is usually the entry-level requirement. Professionals with a master's degree or a PhD, on the other hand, are the ones who get the finest jobs.
E. Areas of Study in Criminology
Times change and the world of crime never ceases to evolve. The type of criminal offenses is changing, and so are the methods for prosecuting them. The discovery, investigation, and prevention of criminal activity are all improving all the time. Criminology research aims to improve current practices in the discipline.
There are six unified, coordinated, and interrelated areas of knowledge. Professionals in each are hard at work converting their mastery into knowledge and action.
A bachelor's degree is insufficient. To thrive as a criminologist, you'll need all of your brains, dedication, and ability to analyze complex situations. An aspiration to better the society will go a long way. You'll also have to put your creative, writing, and oral communication talents to the test. You will have an advantage if you have an analytical mind.
Cybercrime is the newest concern in criminology. With each passing day, the impact of this type of crime grows. As a result, keeping up with new technology is critical for law enforcement professionals. Cybercrime study involves looking into the subject's growing threat at all levels of society. Cybercrime has the potential to affect people on a personal and governmental level. Cybercrime research looks on the motivations and methods used in the crimes, as well as novel ways to respond.
Fraud and corruption are examples of crimes that fit into this category. Counter-fraud research tackles a wide range of issues. The extent to which a crime has spread, the best methods for combating it, and the best courses of action for protecting persons and organizations.
The modern face of justice has been completely transformed by forensic science. Due to advanced technologies, it is considerably more difficult for thieves to hide their activities nowadays. In forensics study, science is applied to the identification and reconstruction of crimes. Techniques like DNA recovery, fingerprinting, and forensic interviews are used.
What is the definition of forensic interviewing? It aids in the discovery of innovative methods for gathering high-quality information from witnesses and crime scenes. It also works on building protocols to ensure that this human data is protected and that police officers read it correctly.
Due to financial limitations, the police department is currently dealing with a number of serious difficulties. At the same time, police officers must continue to learn, and their work may be influenced by personal issues.
Its mission is to look into the function of punishment in the criminal justice system. Is there any evidence that punishment aids in the rehabilitation of criminals, and if so, how much? The solution will aid in the connection of theory to practice, thereby influencing how criminal justice practitioners work.
Before going missing, a person may exhibit a certain pattern of behavior. The study of missing persons helps to identify it. The outcomes will decide how such cases are handled.
F. What is the definition of criminal justice?
Now that we've defined criminology, it's time to discuss criminal justice.
Criminal justice is concerned with society systems, whereas criminology is concerned with crime analysis. Its main interest is on the criminals' criminal behavior. In the United States, for example, the criminal justice system is divided into three divisions. They are the police (sometimes known as law enforcement), the courts, and the correctional system. All of these branches collaborate to penalize and prevent illegal behavior. Expect to work in one of these fields if you pursue a career in criminal justice.
Law enforcement is the most well-known branch of criminal justice. The police force is at the forefront of crime and misdemeanor prevention. They fight the criminal element in a variety of methods. They patrol the streets, investigate crimes, and detain criminals, for example. Police officers aren't the only ones who shoulder these responsibilities. US Marshals, ICE, FBI Agents, DEA, and border patrol are all present. The culprit does not join the court system until after he or she has been apprehended.
Although the court system is less visible to the general public, it is nonetheless an important part of the criminal justice system. Its primary goal is to ascertain whether the subject is innocent or guilty. Working as an attorney, lawyer, bailiff, judge, or other legal professional is an option. If you are a suspect in court, you are presumed innocent unless proven guilty. You have the right to a fair trial as well. However, if you are found guilty, you will be sentenced. The correctional system will be in charge of your punishment.
The nature of the punishment is determined by the courts, and the prisons system is responsible for enforcing it. The correctional system consists of three components: jail, probation, and parole. The criminals are either punished or rehabilitated. Are you interested in pursuing a career in corrections? You could work as a parole officer, a prison warden, a probation officer, or a guard, among other things.
G. Areas of Criminal Justice Research
Criminal justice research fields are comparable, if not identical, to those of criminology. After all, there are two fields that are extremely closely related. The only distinction is that criminal justice research has more practical applications than theoretical ones. But it's fair to argue that theory is the foundation upon which practice is built. It's impossible to have one without the other unless you desire total anarchy.
So, how do you decide on a topic for your research paper?
Keep in mind that the criminal justice system is always changing. Consider a relevant issue while choosing a subject for criminal justice study. In this field, there are numerous pressing challenges. Exploring them will almost certainly earn you brownie points with your lecturer. Just make sure you pick a path that will allow you to demonstrate both your knowledge and your analytical abilities.
Do you have any doubts that your original study topic will be well-received?
Then pick one of the standard subjects. Something that has gotten a lot of attention in the media. Also, make certain that you are genuinely interested in the subject. Otherwise, your boredom will show in your writing, thus harming your overall impression. It's also more pleasurable to work on something that you care about.
What can your study paper be used for?
Anything is possible. Investigate the issue's history. Make an educated guess. Compare and contrast the various viewpoints on the subject. Perhaps some exciting new discoveries have lately been made. So, what does science have to say about it?
Back up all of your claims with real-life instances and quotes.
The Internet serves as the best library and research ground available to students. The thesis, or major idea of the article, must be supported by sufficient factual evidence. Otherwise, you should adjust your research focus.
And, of course, don't leave everything until the last minute. Create a strategy and stick to it. Consistency and a well-balanced effort distribution will get you far. Best of luck!
H. Frequently Asked Questions about Criminal Justice Research
What is the difference between criminology and criminal justice research?
Criminal justice and criminological research are scientific studies of the origins and repercussions, scope and control, nature, management, and prevention of criminal conduct on both a society and individual level.
Criminal justice and criminology are studies that study the prevalence of illegal activities and investigate strategies to prevent them. Any personal investigation and research should be backed up by the use of analytical procedures from scholarly books that discuss the subject.
What Are the Major Research Topics in Criminology?
There are six areas of criminology research that are interconnected:
- Law enforcement professionals benefit from cybercrime research because it keeps them up to date on new technology.
- Fraud and corruption cases are investigated by counter fraud research.
- Science is used in forensics research, such as DNA recovery, fingerprinting, and forensic interviews.
- Individual characteristics that may influence police officers' work are investigated in policing research.
- Penology is the study of punishment and its role in the criminal justice system.
- The study of missing persons aids in the identification of victim behavior patterns.
What Are the Different Types of Criminology Research Methods?
In criminology, there are seven research methods:
- Quantitative research approaches assign numerical values to concepts in order to discover patterns of connection, cause, and effect in criminological and criminal justice reality.
- Through the responses to questions, survey research gathers data from a large number of people.
- In experimental research, two comparison groups are used to assess cause and effect.
- Cross-sectional study looks at a single group at a specific moment.
- Longitudinal study follows a group of people over time.
- Time-series studies look at the same group at different moments in time.
- Meta-analysis is a method of analyzing the results of several studies quantitatively.
What Is Research's Role in Criminal Justice?
Criminological research is the foundation of criminological theory. It has an impact on the formulation of social policies and the practice of criminal justice. Criminological research helps law students acquire more than simply analytical and presentational skills. The way law enforcement operates is dictated by the work of criminal justice professionals, academics, and government policymakers. The most recent research-based ideas also include corrections and crime prevention.
How Do I Write a Research Paper on Criminal Justice?
The following is a step-by-step guide to writing a criminal justice research paper:
- Select a topic.
- Take notes while you read the contents.
- Make a thesis statement.
- Make a plan for your project.
- Make a body draft.
- Begin with a title page, an abstract, and an introduction.
- Make a list of the procedures you employed and the outcomes you obtained.
- Include a conversation section.
- Put it all together with a conclusion.
- Remember to include a literature review and appendices.
- Edit, revise, and proofread
What are the many types of methodologies used in criminal justice research?
The following are the most prevalent approaches used in criminal justice research:
- Participants are being observed.
- Interviews and surveys are two methods of gathering information.
- Focus groups were observed.
- Experiments are being conducted.
- Secondary data analysis and archive research
- A mixture of (a combination of the above methods).
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